When confronted with the same stimulus material a series of images and a text-free film , speakers from France and Quebec focus their attention on different elements and organize the information in their stories differently. The analyses also reveal diversity in the linguistic choices of the Francophones of each group verb types, active and passive structures, presentation of characters as being active or inactive, etc.
The same is true for Spanish, when Castilian is compared with the varieties of the language spoken in Latin America. The choice of these two varieties is based on the geographical distance that separates them, the distinct development of each variety and the presence of English in Quebec. The goal of the study is to ascertain whether speakers of the two varieties communicate different information when they are exposed to the events portrayed in the same stimulus material. When speaking of the information to be transmitted, we not only take into account the content of the story, but also information of a grammatical nature verb tenses, use of passive or active structures, types of subordination and of a lexical nature different types of adverbs, the role of adjectives, the use of verbs of perception or of action.
We also consider the organization of the information in a narrative text the structure of the story, causal relationships between events, types of descriptions, etc. In order to talk about an event which has occurred, the speaker must first understand what has happened and then make a choice about what to recount. So, understanding the occurrence, interpreting it and selecting the information to transmit are part of the first stage, that is, conceptualization. The generation of the preverbal message is the result of this first stage. During the next stage, the preverbal message is encoded with respect to the grammar, lexicon and phonology of the language being used.
The last stage, the actual articulation of the message, at the phonological level, is not relevant to this study. For example, Russian speakers expressing themselves in Esperanto — a language in which transfer is specifically permitted — look for additional ways to express verbal aspect, a grammaticalized category present in Russian in each verbal form. These speakers turn to verbal prefixation by reproducing the mode of formation of the perfective aspect in L1.
They also use lexical means, such as the adjectives jam yet , subite suddenly or finfine finally , to strengthen the perfective aspect. This occurs not only in the conjugated forms but in the infinitive as well. The influence of the L1 also manifests itself in the expression of temporal relationships through the use of adverbs in Esperanto spoken by Italian, French from France , and Russian speakers.
A comparison of the productions in Esperanto L2 with productions in L1 - Italian, French and Russian respectively - brings the preferences of each group of subjects to light Dankova, , , , , b. In particular, noun phrases frequently fail to receive definite marking, not because they do not refer to an identifiable object, but because they simply do not refer.
Is conceptualization different in the varieties of a language? If so, how do these differences manifest themselves and what are the reasons for this variation? As a hypothesis, we consider that the distinct evolution of the two varieties, the socio-cultural context and the impact of English, in the case of the French spoken in Quebec, are potential sources of variation cf.
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No other study deals with temporality in varieties of a language in the same perspective. The group of Anglophones was recruited in order to examine the influence of English on conceptualization in the French spoken in Quebec. For this purposes of this study, 20 subjects were selected for each group. Appendixes , and stories based on an animated film, Quest.
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This text-free film follows a character searching for water to drink. During his quest, he must confront obstacles in a desert of sand, then in a desert of paper and finally in a desert of rock. The corpus of Cat Story in English contains approximately words. The goal of the study was not revealed to any of the participants, who were each recorded separately. After each part, the film was stopped to allow the participant to tell what is going on one at a time so as to avoid confusion between the various parts of the film.
No time limit was imposed. Once finished with one part, the participant continued the viewing of the next part. This way of proceeding was explained to the participants ahead of the actual viewings. As explained to them, the participants were expected to focus on what was going on in the film and not to criticize it.
As well, overly philosophical comments were not encouraged.
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On a cultural level, the supports are neutral and give no advantage to either of the groups and that do not contain explicit visual or sound elements specific to a particular culture that could be understood or interpreted differently according to the participant's culture and language.
How are the events in the stimuli interpreted? Which linguistic means are favoured by the subjects of the three groups? The images present the state of events at different stages in the story and it is up to the narrators to establish the causal links between these events. While it is possible for the narrators to limit themselves to describing the images for example, there is a nest , the bird flies away , then a cat arrives , etc.
However, the interpretation of these events demonstrates very different attitudes. First, we focused on the representation of the bird and the reasons given for its departure from the nest image 2 in the series. On the other hand, in 8 of the 34 stories by Quebecers recorded and analyzed, the bird leaves because of its fear of the cat. Two subjects from Quebec talk about the bird being hungry. In most of the English stories, the bird sets off to find food for its babies.
The arrival of the cat is a key event in the story. In the stories in French from Quebec and in English, the bird sometimes notices the arrival of the cat before leaving and in these cases, the arrival of the cat is not described. Verbs of visual or auditory perception are frequent in the stories of the French subjects, compared to those in the stories of subjects from Quebec Tables 1 and 2. As for verbs of cognition, they are more frequent in the English stories than in the French stories and their rates are higher in the corpus from Quebec than in the corpus from France.
Table 1 Psychological verbs Cat Story occurrences. Table 2 Psychological verbs Quest occurrences. The categorical variables are independent. All of the subjects mentioned these falls in their stories and the way they described them was studied from three different angles. Each shareholder has the right to participate in the collective decisions, regardless of the nature of these decisions.
Voting rights attached to the shares are proportional to the part of the capital they represent. The shareholder may, rather than attending a meeting in person or participating in a video conference, choose between one of the following possibilities:. The mandate may be sent by all written means and notably by fax or electronic transmission. In case of question as to the validity of the mandate, the burden of proof shall lie with the person contesting the mandate.
The vote of the shareholder must, in order to be considered, be notified to the Company by any written means, including fax or electronic transmission, at the latest, at the time scheduled for the meeting or video conference. No quorum is required for collective decisions taken in shareholders meetings or by video conference. The decisions can be validly taken by individual written consultation only if the shareholders hold a combined total of at least half of the shares having a vote.
Except as provided for in Article 28, decisions are taken by a simple majority of the expressed votes; if a ballot is held, the votes expressing no view are not counted. The statutory auditor shall be invited to participate in any collective decision, at the same time and in the same form as the shareholders. The same rule shall apply to the Works Council. All decisions of the shareholders shall be recorded in minutes. The minutes shall be recorded chronologically in a stamped and initialled register.
The minutes of the decisions of the shareholder are prepared by the President of the meeting.
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They shall indicate the date and place of the meeting, the means of calling and consultation, the agenda, the composition of the committee, the name of the participating shareholder, the number of voting shares, the documents and reports submitted to the shareholders, a summary of the discussions, the text of the resolutions put to the votes and results of the votes or the decision. Any consultation of the shareholder by video conference shall be recorded in minutes prepared by the President or the shareholder proposing the consultation, indicating the date and time of the conference, the means of calling the meeting and the means of consultation, the name of the participating shareholder, the number of voting shares, a summary of the discussions, the text of the resolutions put to the vote and the result of the vote or the decision.
Any individual written consultation shall be recorded in minutes prepared by the President indicating the means of convocation, the date of the consultation of each shareholder, the number of voting shares and the decisions taken by each shareholder. The written response of each shareholder shall be annexed to the minutes.
All of the minutes are prepared and signed by the President or the shareholder chairing the meeting or conducting the consultation in the absence of the President. They shall be held to be valid until proved otherwise.
They may also be validly certified by the secretary of the meeting. After the dissolution of the Company, and during its liquidation, the copies and excerpts of the minutes shall be validly certified by the liquidator. The Company's financial year shall commence on 1st January and finish on 31st December of each year. The President keeps regular accounts of corporate transactions, approves the annual accounts, in accordance with applicable law and commercial customs. He establishes an annual management report including a forecast of development of the Company.
These documents shall be annually approved by the sole shareholder, or the shareholders in case of plurality of shareholders, as applicable, within 6 months of the financial year end.